Hartal is affected the life of the people in Dhaka city…..Reserach Monogrph

 

                                           Contents
                   Chapter-1
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Statement of the problem
1.3. Rationale of the study
1.4. Objectives of the study
1.5. Operational definition of the key concepts
                     Chapter-2
2.1. Literature Review
                     Chapter-3
Theoretical framework
                      Chapter-4
                   Methodology
4.1. Study Area
4.2. Sampling procedure and sample design
4.3. Techniques of data collection
                 Chapter-5
Conceptual framework
Ø     Limitations of the study
             Chapter-6
 Analysis of Demographic and Socio-economic condition
               Chapter-7
7.1 Findings and Results
7.2. Conclusion
7.3. Recommendation
                Chapter-8
Ø     References
Ø    Appendix
Ø     Interview schedule
                                                          Chapter-1
                                    
                                        1.1. Introduction
The history of Bangladesh as a nation state began in 1971. In the past time politics was used for the welfare of country. In those day’s there was no quarrel among the politicians for money and power but as today most of the politicians are interest is grown for money and power not for welfare of country. Hartal is used for political approach. Hartal was not everyday matter in those days but at present time Bangladesh’s political system is feeble. For this purpose opposite party called hartal frequently.
                                      1.2. Statement of the problem
Hartal politics has become pervasive in Bangladesh. I t has part of our life. The frequent hartals and work stoppages have been view from different angles. Though hartal is the opposition political parties insist on a powerful tool of pressure to make their demands. Frequently hartals generally disrupt the normal life. Moreover, the poor suffers more during the hartal as they lose their income. It is generally believed that frequent hartal not only disrupt normal life, they also have a negative effect on the poor income earners of the city like the rickshaw pullers, day labor, slum dwellers etc.
 Especially day laborers and lower socio-economic people were perceived to be worst affected by hartal. Day laborers are very poor that they live on hand to mouth. During the hartal, they can’t go their work. So they don’t earn money. For this purpose, hartal hampered their economical income. If they don’t income money, they are hungry everyday. Both major political parties have the financial resources and the country wide organization needed to employ outside workers. Both can afford to hire tokais, armed cedres or poor slum dwellers to ensure a good turnout at their programes. This day laborers are worked for economic interest and sometimes they are victim of this politics.
The consequences of hartal in terms of economic, social and political costs are huge. While the negative economic consequences of hartal draw a great deal of attention, its social consequences should not be overlooked. Over a period of 52 years from 1947, about 250 deaths during hartals could be identified from newspaper reports. Over 13000 people were injured and 10000 arrested and most often it is the poor who are victims of these conflicts.
                                1.3. Rationale of the study
Hartal is a form of protest against the authorities to realize certain demands or to demonstrate disapproval of certain actions of those against whom the hartal is directed. Political hartal is different in nature and takes place on political issues that certain the whole nation and raise public conscience for or against the demands at issue. The only way to resolve political hartals is to reach understanding and argument through dialogue and negotiation between the government in power and the opposition to resolve the issues that sparked off the hartals.
After the independence of the country and the emergence of Bangladesh the context has changed and the protection and promotion of the national interest have become the supreme concern for each and every citizen and more so for all political parties and the leaders in a constitutional and democratic system. However, in an autocratic and undemocratic regime where the government is not formed through the constitutional process by a fare and free election, hartal is recognized as a legitimate instrument to demonstrate people’s protest against and disapproval of an democratic government (Source-www.cyberbangladesh.org/ethics.html).
Top business leaders may propose a law banning hartal to put on end to its detrimental effects on trade, business and other economic activities. Hartal is not simply an inconvience and naisance,  it is tantamount to call for an “economic boycott” of our own goods and services by own politicians during the period hartals are effect. In stronger words, one may regard the calls for hartals as an act of constitutionally sanctioned economic terrorism. Reluctant shopkeepers and innocent by standers lose properties and many even get killed by hartal enforcing hoolingan.
Hartal causes financial loss of thousand of crores of taka but harm abroad is more than the economic loss at home. The economist said hartal hurts credibility of the country in terms of source of export and access to international market. Hartal is affected the life of the people in Dhaka city.
 People are social beings and hartal affects individual as well as society as a whole. Disruption in mobility and financial loss in terms of increase in expenditures and decrease in income are perceived to be the major effect of hartal on personal life. Especially hartal affects our day labor’s personal life because during the period they don’t go outside and they don’t earn money. So they are more affected on hartal. For these perspectives, I can say that my topic is perfect to be studied in the present context of hartal.
                           1.4. Objectives of the study
Every research study there have must some objectives by which the study could be search its absolute pathways. So, there are some specific objectives in my study:
   1) Socio-economic condition of the respondents
   2) Nature of occupation
  3) To know the impact of hartal on respondent’s occupation
  4) To know the impact on societies development
                    1.5. Operational definition of key concepts
 Hartal-
Hartal is a term in many Indian language for strive action, used often during the Indian Independence movement. It is mass protest often involving shut down of workplaces, offices, shops, courts of law as a form of civil disobedience. It is mode of appeal in to the sympathies of a government to change an unpopular on unacceptable decision. Hartal was originally a Gujrati expression signifying the closing down of shops and warehouses with the objectives of realizing a demand. In Pakistan and Bangladesh, a hartal is a recognized political method for articulating any political damand.
Day labor-
A day labor is he who does heavy manual labor in various fields. He works hard from dawn to dusk for his employer and gets his wages at evening. Sometimes he and his family go without food if he can’t nanage work. The life of a day laborer is full of sorrows and sufferings. He can hardly enjoy peace and happiness. In all weathers good and bad ha works hard all day long and earns his livelihood by the sweat of his brow. Through the service of a day laborer is of great importance. He is very much neglected. He is not hold in due respect.
                                         Chapter-2
                                 Literature Review
Literature review is the most significant part of a research. Reviewing literature mainly helps to find out the way of conducting the research. It also helps us to increase knowledge about the particular problem. So a literature review has been done regarding this research problem.
Chowdhury, Osman Haider (18 April 2000) conducted a study on struggling theoretical perspective was used in this study. The major objective of the study was to determine the extent of income loss and sufferings of the poor city dwellers. Here, he used survey method on this research. The study findings demonstrate that the respondents are predominantly male, illiterate and majority of them are rickshaw puller. Most of the respondents have no direct political affiliation. I t is seem that except for rickshaw pullers, all other poorer groups have more expenses than income currently. Most of them have borrowed money in recent times.
In early 2003, UNDP Facilitated a nation wide opinion survey to access public perceptions on the use oh hartals. A s the findings suggest, people hold very strong views about hartals, naming the numerious negative effects and suggesting alternatives. At the same time however many also view calling a hartal as a legitimate democratic right, although there is a clear preference for politicians and leaders to use other means of voicing dissent. A summery of the methodology used for the opinion survey method is attached of the reports. The effectiveness of hartals, the impact on day labor’s means to address their adverse effects and possible alternatives. Bangladesh seem to be divided in their perceptions of the effectiveness of hartal as a political tool. However, perversely the hartal tradition seems to have lasted even when Bangladeshis have chosen their leaders by democratic means. The most harmful impacts on the economy were believed to be the losses to the business sector and harm to the national economy.
Freedom of expression, access to information, right to voice, disapproval is democratic rights in civilized society, but hartal which creates panic, anarchy and causes immense to all sections of citizens must be termed democratic right in Bangladesh. Excessive and reported use of this program in Bangladesh has made it an unworkable unless tool. Arson, clashes, destruction of properties and loss of lives on hartal day’s has become usual norms these days in Bangladesh. Unfortunately leaders political parties in several years could not find out any suitable program to register their disapproval of government actions. (www.weeklyblitz.net)
According to the UNDP’S report, Beyond’s of Hartal: Toward democracy in Bangladesh(2011), today’s hartal involve the temporary suspension of work in business premises, offices and educational institutions and movement of traffic, nationally, regionally or locally as a mark a of protest against actual or perceived grievance called by a political party or parties or other demand groups. Violence and vandalism are also frequently present. This may be due to the fact that the success of hartals often rests on coercion or even the use of payment to hired hands by hartal organizes to mobilize support.
                                          Chapter-3
                           Theoretical Framework
 Many theorists developed their ideas on class conflict.
In sociology, conflict theory states that society or an organization functions so that each individual participant and its groups struggle to maximize their benefits, which inevitably contributes to social change such as political changes and revolutions. The theory is mostly applied to explain conflict between social classes, proletariat versus bourgeoisie; and in ideologies, such as capitalism versus socialism. While conflict theory successfully describes instances where conflict occurs between groups of people, for a variety of reasons, it is questionable whether this represents the ideal human society. Although some theorists, such as Karl Marx, have claimed that growth and development occur through the conflict between opposing parties, cooperation is also a source of healthy growth. It needs to be determined under which situations, if any, conflict is necessary to produce change, as compared to those under which cooperation and harmony lead to the greatest advances.
Some are related to my study. Some related theories are mentioned below:
Conflict Theory on Karl Marx-
According to Karl Marx in all stratified societies there are two major social groups: a ruling class and a subject class. The ruling class derives its power from its ownership and control of the forces of production. The ruling class exploits and oppresses the subject class. As a result there is a basic conflict of interest between the two classes. The various institutions of society such as the legal and political system are instruments of ruling class domination and serve to further its interests. Marx believed that western society developed through four main epochs-primitive communism, ancient society, feudal society and capitalist society.
Primitive communism is represented by the societies of pre-history and provides the only example of the classless society. From then all societies are divided into two major classes – master and slaves in ancient society, lords and serfs in feudal society and capitalist and wage labourers in capitalist society.
As Marx saw the development of class conflict, the struggle between classes was initially confined to individual factories. Eventually, given the maturing of capitalism, the growing disparity between life conditions of bourgeoisie and proletariat, and the increasing homogenization within each class, individual struggles become generalized to coalitions across factories. Increasingly class conflict is manifested at the societal level. Class consciousness is increased, common interests and policies are organized, and the use of and struggle for political power occurs. Classes become political forces.
The distribution of political power is determined by power over production (i.e., capital). Capital confers political power, which the bourgeois class uses to legitimatize and protect their property and consequent social relations. Class relations are political, and in the mature capitalist society, the state’s business is that of the bourgeoisie. Moreover, the intellectual basis of state rule, the ideas justifying the use of state power and its distribution, are those of the ruling class. The intellectual-social culture is merely a superstructure resting on the relation of production, on ownership of the means of production.
Conflict theory offers a useful lens with which to analyze society. One might use this theory to explain the enmity between rich and poor within any society. This enmity could be expressed emotionally, verbally, or physically. Applying the theory to notable class conflicts is possible. Events such as the “Battle in Seattle” over global trade or the French Revolution serve as two examples.
Conflict theory can also be used to explain non-economic conflicts within a society. One might look at the divide between Protestants and Catholics as a battle over spiritual resources. On a less macro level, the competition between students in a classroom serves as a useful example as well. In such ways, conflict theory is usefully ambiguous in its application to innumerable phenomena.
It indicates that their idea can be used in analyzing the problem of my study.
Durkheim’s theory of Social class-
Durkheim believed that harmony, rather than conflict, defined society. He examines social phenomena with regard to their function in producing or facilitating social cohesion. He studied the division of labor, religion and suicide from this perspective. Durkheim believed that solidarity was the normal condition of society, and even though he recognized the turmoil associated with industrialization, he considered conflict abnormal or pathological.
Durkheim identified two major types of social integration, mechanical and organic. The former refers to integration that is based on shared beliefs and sentiments, while the latter refers to integration that results from specialization and interdependence. These types reflect different ways that societies organized themselves. Where there is little differentiation in the kinds of labor that individuals engage in, integration based on common beliefs is to be found; in societies where work is highly differentiated, solidarity is the consequence of mutual dependence. The distinction reveals Durkheim’s thinking about how modern societies differ from earlier ones, and consequently, how solidarity changes as a society becomes more complex. As a society becomes larger, division of labor increases. A complex organization of labor is necessary, in larger societies, for the production of material life.Solidarity based on the common belief system is no longer possible. Complexity does not lead to disintegration, Durkheim argued, but rather, to social solidarity based on interdependence.
Durkheim first mentions the concept of anomie in The Division of Labor in Society, but he develops the idea more completely in Suicide. The concept has been widely used by sociologists since. To understand the term, it is necessary to start with its context. Durkheim attempts to explain the function of the division of labor, and makes the observation that it creates social cohesion. The industrial revolution, of course, produced great tension and turmoil, and Durkheim recognized this. He resolved the contradiction by developing the notion of anomie.
Anomie is usually translated as normlessness, but it best understood as insufficient normative regulation. During periods of rapid social change, individuals sometimes experience alienation from group goals and values. They lose sight of their shared interests based on mutual dependence. In this condition, they are less constrained by group norms. Normative values become generalized, rather than personally embraced.
The developments in the division of labor associated with industrialization facilitated anomie. As work became routinized, broken down into dull, repetitive tasks, workers lose the sense of their role in production, and are less committed to the process and the organization. As a result, the norms of the workplace exert less influence on their activity.
Whereas Marx saw social conflict as inherent in the manner in which labor was organized in capitalist societies, Durkheim believed that diminished solidarity was a pathological condition. He believed that modern societies would need to develop new means of reinforcing social norms and a shared sense of affiliation. Drawing on Alexis de Tocqueville’s analysis of American society2, Durkheim suggested that social cohesion could result from action of occupations groups.
Occupational groups could replace the normative functions that were once exercised by institutions such as religion, local community, and the family. Relations between occupational groups would be economic, in the sense that they would have to work together to reach agreements about the conditions of labor, wages, etc. Relations would also be political. These groups would function like political parties. Durkheim distrusted mass democracy and worried about increasingly bureaucratized state. He felt that occupational groups ought to participate in government, thereby checking the excesses of individual passions, on the one hand, and oppressive bureaucracy on the other.
Occupational groups would also function as social organizations. Since they are based on the similarity of labor, Durkheim thought that individuals within them would naturally have shared interests and a sense of collective identity. Flowing from this, they could organize leisure activities and other social interactions, giving individuals a sense of belonging in the ways that primary affiliations, such as kin and religion used to.
It indicates that their idea can be used in analyzing the problem of my study.
                                           Chapter-4
                                  Methodology                                     
                                       The study has been conducted by following a quantitative approach.In this regard survey method has been followed.
This research is investigation type. The study is effort to investigate the effect of hartal and its impact on day laborers.
4.1. Study Area
The present study is conducted in at least two wards of Dhaka district. From these two wards six areas is selected as part of study area. Selected areas are Sutrapur, Luxmibazar, Gandaria, Kaltabazar, Nayabazar, Sakharibazar.
4.2. Sampling procedure and sample design
The sample procedure and sample size in any sample survey is an important factor. The method of sample for the forgoing research is accidental sampling. The respondents for this study is comprise of day labor of Dhaka city. A total sample of 30 day laborers is selected as study population.
4.3. Techniques of data collection
*Primary source:
Face to face interview has been the conducted in collecting primary data from respondents. Primary information is provided directly by the selected day laborers in the Dhaka area. Primary data is collect by means of standardized used in interviewing the sample respondents It is acquire through direct interviews.
*Secondary source-
Secondary data is collected through various sources, such as-literature and publications available in national and international documents, publications, NGO’s, different types journal, newspaper, magazines, books, internet etc. The information collect through the interview schedule survey has been compiled for analysis through a standard data entry form. Graphical presentation techniques are the major analytical means for interpreting the surveyed sample database and pie-chart, Histo-grams. For quantitative data explicit meaning of the observed phenomena is emphasized.
                                                           Chapter-5
                                  Conceptual Framework
Effect of Hartal-
The continuing use of hartal in India, Nepal and Bangladesh underscores that in the midst of transition to democracy experience many difficulties, obstacles and reversals. The process is inevitably intertwined with the broader process of modernization, which gives rise to a variety of contradictory social and political forces. It is difficult to recognized that the pervasiveness of hartal in a country like Bangladesh is an obstacle to democracy and that their persistence is related to the way political mobilization takes place and political demands are articulated.
The mass people are affected very much in hartal. They can’t go to their work and can’t earn money. Sometimes they are facing some urgent problem but they can’t go outside. If they go outside, they are victim of hartal. During the period of hartal, the product can’t come in town, for this purpose,market prize of products is increased. During the hartal period mass people are sufferer.
Hartals affect all section of society. Some of the main impacts cited were: disruption to mobility, financial losses, hampering of business activities. Other key impacte were the closing down of educational institution, damage to vehicles and building, suffering of the general public and prize hikes of daily essential were cited as additional effects.
Impact on Economy-
Hartal is not simply an incontinence and a naissance, it is tantamount to call for an “economic boycott” of our own goods and services by our own politicians during the period of hartals are in effect. The impact of hartal on the economy was very or some what negative. The most harmful impacts on the economy were losses to the business sector and harm to the national economy. Disruption of transportation and exports and imports were also significance among the adverse effect. A huge amount of liquidity remained stored at every branch of commercial bank, posting high risks in operating banking activities during hartal.
The analysis of the UNDP data on hartals show that between 1947 and 2002 an estimated 1,172 hartals were observed in Bangladesh, while 611 of them took place from 1995 to 2002 since the advent of democracy in the country(Source-www1. chineseshipping.com.cn./en/news).
To generate an overview of how the economy is affected by Hartals, the last decades amount of hartal day’s as well as parties responsible for calling them.The following overall trends can be mentioned:
         * Regional and local hartal occurs more frequently and last longer than nation-wide hartals.
* Both major political parties equally active in using hartal as a means of political protest. In the ten year period from 1991 to 2000, 61 national hartal were called by the BNP,while
the Awami League called 67.
* There appears to be a ‘bunching’ of hartals associated with a change of regimes.
* Recently, there seems to be a trend towards more half-day hartals.
Manufacturers and Exporters Association estimated that it loses US$18 million a day during hartals. These estimates may however be slightly exaggerated, given that various coping strategies are used to make up for losses.
                                Yearly cost of hartal millions taka
Year
GDP
GDP DAY
Hartal days
GDP loss of hartal
GDP loss(%)
96-97
  1762847
    5956
    7
   41,689
    2.4
97-98
  1844436
    6231
    8
   49,850
    2.7
98-99
  1934370
    6535
    28
  182,981
     9.5
99-2000
  1934291
    6535
    15
   98,022
     5.1
Average
  1641700
    5546
    14
    80,385
     4.5
Source-Own calculation based on BBS data.(Statistical year book 2000) and hartal statistics.
Impact on Society-
The impact of hartal on society reflected strongly. Hartal hampered business and disruptions to everyday life. Especially day laborer and middle lower income people, who are less financially solvent, are most affected by hartals due to loss in income and increase of their expenditures. Students were also affected by hartal.
Impact on Education-
Hartal had a very or somewhat negative impact on education. Hartal prevent student from attending classes, creating increased pressure on them later on their studies and at exam time. The major impact of hartal is the postponement of exams resulting in delays in finishing school session. Hartal delayed education, which can have severe long term effects on younger people’s future prospects.
Impact on Personal life-
People are social beings and hartal affect individuals as well as society as a whole. Disruption in mobility and financial loss in terms of increase in expenditures and decreases in income are perceived to be the major effect of hartal on personal life.
In general people are more conscious about the financial impacts of hartal than their other effects on society such as security concerns or social cost of frequently called hartal.
       Occupation
        Normal time
        During hartal
Rickshaw puller
        9.06(102)
         3.40(45)
Poor footpath vendors
       11.80(90)
         5.40(34)
Day laborer
         9.40
         4.70(34)
Small shopkeeper
       11.90(105)
         5.90(43)
Garment workers
       11.20(67)
         7.50(38)










Source-A survey on the impact of hartal on the poor of Dhaka city, Dr. Osman Haider Chowdhury,2000.

                The Natural Damage by Geographical Area:
                             Geographical Area
   Old Dhaka
Commercial& Industrial area
   New Dhaka
     Total
Income decrease
       67
      63
         68
       66
Found no job
       13
      12
         12
       12
Physical danger
       10
       9
          8
        9
Damage of       rickshaw
        9
      13
         10
       10
Others
        2
       3
          2
        2
Total
      100
     100
       100
      100
Source-A survey on the impact of hartal the poor of the Dhaka city, Dr.Osman Haider, 2000.
Hartals and the concomitant loss of output and the welfare may seem as being a short term phenomena by the hartals callers. Political stability is probably the most important discouraging factors for foreign investment and capital flow.Such destructive activities could send back many potential foreign investigators from our share at a time when many developed countries including Turkey and Japan are looking to relocate their industries in Bangladesh.
During hartal time, essential commodities from different district could not reach their distination.As the consequences of hartal,prise of various vegetables,fish and meat items went up slightly in retain markets.
Effect of hartal on day laborer-
Hartal as a means of political activity.The day labor is defined as one who has worked everyday for income and one who earns his livelihood through applying his/her physical labor like-Rickshaw-puller,small vendors on the footpath and slum dwellers who are engaged in varieties of income earning activities on a day-to-day basis without any contractual obligation.The rickshaw pullers, poor footpath vendors,small shopkeepers have been mostly affected in hartal.During the period of hartal, they can’t go their work. For this purpose they can’t earn money.Their income is very limited which is not
sufficient to maintain their family and they can’t teach their children properly.
   Limitations of the study
Though I know that every research has must some problems are created. I am also facing
some problem during the course of my study but I am overcome those problem and
capable to prepared my research monograph. I must admit that my research has also limitations in some form or other. It may start with data analysis, selection of the sample, data collection and data presentation. It is best to recognize these limitations rather than to pretend that these limitations do not exist. I am frank and fair to mention any unprecedented or situational factors that I might encounter during the execution of my study. In my research there are some limitations. The main limitation of my research I did not find any books or articles or research in my topic. As this research is newly done by me that’s why there will have some limitations and this is the natural. Besides for the cause of sufficient time and sufficient money I did not do my monograph properly.
                                       Chapter-6
6.1. Analysis of Demographic and Socio-economic condition
Percentage distribution of the respondents by age:
                                              Table-1          
                             
Age of the respondents
    Frequency
Percentage (%)
             20-30
           15
        50
             30-40
           11
        36.67
             40-50
            4
        13.33
             Total
           30
         100
The data of table:1 indicate that 50% of the respondents belong 20-30 age group,37% of the respondents 30-40 age group, only 13% of the respondents belong 40-50 age group. Most of them are aged 20-30.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by religion:
                                               Table-2    
                                                  
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Muslim
19
63.33
Hindu
10
33.33
Buddhist
0
 0
Christen
1
3.33
Total
30
100
Table:2 indicate that 64% of the respondents is Muslim,33% of the respondents is Hindu, 0% of the respondent is Buddhist,3% of the respondents is Christen.80% people of
Bangladesh are Muslims. So that most of the respondents are Muslims.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by marital status:
                                                 Table-3
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Married
17
56.67
Unmarried
9
30
Divorce
4
13.33
Widow
0
0
Total
30
100
The data of table:3 indicate that 57% of the respondents are married,30% of the respondents are unmarried, only 13% of the respondents are divorce,0% of the respondent is widow.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by Education:
                                         Table-4
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Illiterate
10
33.33
Literate
6
20
Primary
8
26.67
Secondary
6
20
Higher secondary
0
0
Total
30
100
Table:4 indicate that 33% of the respondents are Illiterate,20% of the respondents are literate 27% of the respondents are Primary,20% of the respondents are secondary,0% of the respondents are higher secondary. In my research I have found that most of the day laborers are illiterate as they don’t get enough scope for education.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by family living:
                                          Table-5
 Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Village home
19
63.33
Town
11
36.67
Total
30
100
Table:5 shows that 64% of the respondents are living at village home. Respondents argue that living cost of Dhaka city is very high, they have no sufficient money to live in Dhaka city, so maximum respondents are living in village home,36% of the respondents are living in town.
 Percentage distribution of the respondents by living in Dhaka:
                                               Table-6
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Slum
13
43.33
Relative house
4
13.33
Rent house
13
43.33
Total
30
100
The data of table:6 indicate that 43% of the respondents are living at slum, they argue that house rent of Dhaka city is very high so they live in slum, only 13% of the respondents are living at relative house,44% of the respondents are living at rent house. they argue that house rent Dhaka cities house rent is very high so they live low paid rent house where environmental condition are not so well.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by occupation:
                                               Table-7
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Rickshaw pullers
10
33.33
Poor footpath vendors
5
16.67
Daily wage earners
9
30
Small shopkeepers
6
20
Total
30
100
Table:7 shows that 34% of the respondents are rickshaw pullers,They argue that rickshaw-pulling is a common source of income so that most of the respondents are  rickshaw puller,16% of the respondents are poor footpath vendors, on the other hand 30% of the respondents are daily wage earners, it is also a common source of income.20% of the respondents are small shopkeepers.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by income:
                                               Table-8
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
100-300
18
60
300-600
11
36.67
600-800
1
3.33
800-1000
0
0
Total
30
100
Above the data of table:8 represent that 60% of the respondents income 100-300 taka,in my study I found that most of the respondents income not more than 300 taka a day.36% of the respondents income 300-600 taka,only 4% of the respondents income 600-800 taka,0% of the respondents income 800-1000 taka.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by satisfaction in occupation:
                                               Table-9
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Yes
5
16.67
No
25
83.33
Total
30
100
Table-9 shows that 17% of the respondents are satisfied in their occupation and 83% of the respondents are not satisfied.They argue that market price rising day by day so they can not afford to maintain their family properly.For this reason most of the respondents are not satisfied in their occupation.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by the reason of unsatisfaction:
                                        Table-10
*Reason of unsatisfaction
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Hard labor
5
20
Fail to full fill family demand
9
36
Low income
11
44
*Multiple responses are counted.
The data of table:10 represent that 20% of the respondents do not satisfied their occupation because of hard labour,36% of the respondents do not satisfied because of failing family demand,44% respondents do not satisfied because of law income.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by beside occupation:
                                               Table-11
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Yes
15
50
No
15
50
Total
30
100
Table:11 indicate that 50%  of the respondents are doing something beside occupation and  50%  of the respondents are not doing.50%  of the respondents think that if they do part time work they can serve their family properly and rest of the respondents don’t think so.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by work beside occupation:
                                         Table-12
*Work beside occupation
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Agricultural work
7
46.67
Destiny
4
26.67
Security guard
1
6.67
Work in insurance company
1
6.67
Work in a flexiload shop
1
6.67
Table:12 shows that 46% of the respondents are doing agricultural work.Respondents argue that  agricultural work is more profitable than any other work so that most of the respondents are interested to agricultural work.on the other hand 27% are work in destiny,6% are work in security guard, 6% are work in insurance company, 6% are work in flexiload shop.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by interest in politics:
                                               Table-13
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Yes
12
40
No
18
60
total
30
100
The data of table:13 represent that 40%of the respondents are interested in politics and 60% of the respondents are not interested in politics.Most of the respondents argue that, they don’t get any benefit from politics that’s why they don’t like politics.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by participation in political activities:
                                               Table-14
*Participation in political activities
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Participation in processions and meetings
11
91.67
Posturing
1
8.33
*Multiple responses are counted.
Table:14 shows that 92% of the respondents are participation in processions and political meetings.Respondents think that they get extra income from processions and meetings so they engaged in processions and meetings.Only 8% of the respondents are engaged in posturing for extra income.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by preferring hartal:
                                                       Table-15
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Yes
3
10
No
27
90
Total
30
100
Above the data of table:15 indicate that 10% of the respondents are preferring hartal and 90% of the respondents are not preferring hartal.They think that hartal obstruct their life and reduce their income so that most of the respondents don’t like hartal.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by affects of hartal:
                                                       Table-16
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Yes
27
90
No
3
10
Total
30
100
Table:16 represent that 90% of the respondents are affected by hartal and 10% of the respondents are not affected.They said that hartal affects their income.because of hartal people cannot go outside so most of the respondents cannot buy&sale.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by type of affect:
                                               Table-17
*Type of affect
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Rising market price
2
7.41
Decrease of sales
8
29.63
Low income
17
62.96
* Multiple responses are counted.
Table:17 shows that 8% of the respondents opinion rising msrket price,29% respondents opinion decrease of sales and 62% of the respondents opinion low income.They argue that because of hartal they have no work so that their income decreases.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by affect of hartal on economy:
                                               Table-18
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Yes
30
100
No
0
0
Total
30
100
 In the data of table:18 indicate that 100% of the respondents give their answer hartal affects economy.The argue that hartal decreased economic income.because of hartal most of the private industries are closed,people cannot go their work and earn money.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by how hartal affects economy:
                                               Table-19
*how hartal affects economy
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Decrease economic income
28
93.33
Most of the private industries are closed
23
76.67
People cannot go their income
28
93.33
Stopped import-export
4
13.33
Business institution are closed
7
23.33
Avobe the table:19 represent that 94% of the respondents think that hartal affects economy by decreasing economic income.They argue that hartal hampers business and stoped import export that’s why economical condition is affected.76% of the respondents said that most of the private industries are closed,93% of the respondents says people cannot go their work so that their become low.14% says stopped import-export and 23% says business institution are closed due to hartal.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by hartal affects market price:
                                               Table-20
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Yes
30
100
No
0
0
Total
30
100
Table:20 shows that 100% of the respondents think that hartal affects market price,they argue that hartal affects market price by stopping transportation system.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by how hartal affects market price:
                                               Table-21
*How hartal affects market price
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Hampered transportation system
17
56.67
Insufficient supply of goods
4
13.33
Price hike
9
30
* Multiple responses are found in a single category.
Table:21 represent that 56% of the respondents think that hartal affects market price by hampering transportation system,14% think that hartal affects market by insufficient supply of goods and 30% think that hartal affects market price by price hiking.
Percentage distribution of the respondents by thinking hartal as the obstacle of development:
                                            Table-22
Answer type
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Yes
30
100
No
0
0
Total
30
100
In the data of table:22 indicate that 100% of the respondents argue that hartal is the obstacle of development.Because of hartal decrease income,industries are closed, people cannot go their work & earn money so that hartal as the obstacle of development.
                                             Chapter-7
                                          7.1 Findings and Results
In my research most of the respondents lives in the law rent houses of slum and their family lives in the village. They argue that maintenance in Dhaka is too much high so that living hear with their families is impossible for them. Most of the respondents in my research are rickshaw-puller and they earn their bread by pulling rickshaw. Along with that few respondents work as day-laborer. Most of the respondents earn tk.100-300 daily. With this limited income they cannot bear their family expenses.
Most of the respondents are not fully satisfied in their profession. They argue as their reason of  unsatisfaction that they work more but get less come and because of that they become unable to fulfill their family needs. So, maximum of them are involved with the
professions like agricultural work, Destiny etc as their part-time work.
In my study most of the respondents does not like politics. Though few of them take part several political works like processions, mettings, posturing etc. for extra income. Most of the respondents do not like hartal.They argue that,Hartal effects their income. Hartal creates a bad impact on sale and that’s the main reason of price hike. Mass people don’t go out of their residents.
In my research all respondents argue that Hartal affects our economy. They think that hartal decreases national income.Because of hartal most of the respondents do not go to their work and because of that the industries shut down. So the price of daily commodities rises excessively. In my study respondents think that hartal creates obstrucles in the path of our development.Because of hartal economic income decreases, the companies shut down, people do not go out. As a result income decreases.
                                     7.2 Conclusion
The hartal in our Country has a long history and practice as means of protest. Hartal was not only used as expression of protest during colonial days but continued to be observed thereafter. There have been calls of hartal on important issues which have been observed peacefully, spontaneously and without fear or coercion. Therefore we do not entirely agree that the call for every hartal by organizersis clearly intended that they expect all activity to come to a stand still on the day of hartal as has been found in the case of bundh by the Kerala High Court. We cannot also say that it is always the intention of callers of the hartal to ensure that no activity either public or private is carried on that day as hasbeen held by the Court of Kerala. So long as the call for hartal is only a call to express solidarity with the caller of hartal to protest and there is no express or implied threat or warning, it can not be said to be interfering with the right of the citizen merely because some incidents against public order occur on the day of hartal. Therefore it is my view that call for hartal per se is not illegal but where any call for hartal is accompanied by threat it would amount to intimidation and the caller for hartal or strike would be liable under the ordinary law of the land……The calling for hartal and not accompanied by threat would be only an expression guaranteed as a fundamental right under the Constitution. But any attempt to enforce it or ensure that a hartal is observed would make the call illegal and interfering with the individual right. It would depend on the circumstance.
Above all the discussion,we can say that most of the city dwellers do not support hartal because they suffer most in terms of economic loss and income loss. They also witness a lot of damage to their properties due to hartal.Day laborers do participate in political activities but most of them do not support any political party. Some of them receive money for participating in hartals, meetings and processions. But two third of them do not participate in these activities even after receiving the money.
Finally, the poor overwhelmingly believe that parliament should be the appropriate forum for sorting out political differences but they also do support that meetings/processions should be allowed to air the political grievances.
                                       7.3. Recommendation
                                            Chapter-8
                             References
·        Islam,Aminul “The history of hartal”
·        Tazeen,murshid, Political parties and civil society:Restoring
·        Mohammad,Zayed & Hossain,Manzoor “Hartals and the law”
·        Ahmed,Iraz & Mortoza,Golam: The Anatomy of Hartals
·        Chawdhury,Dr.Haider , A survey on the impact of hartal on the poor of Dhaka city
·        UNDP’S report, “Beyond hartals:towards democracy in bangladesh”-Published in The independence on 15th july 2011
·        5 january 2004,The daily star “Thought on Hartal”
·        8 july 2011-Daily Sun-“Hartal Pushes up vegetable price sharply in capotal
·        2 September,2002,Prothom Alo “But why this destructive hartal?”
·        31 December 2003,The Daily star “All terns to Hartal stunt uplift”
·        www.wikipedia.org/wiki/hartal tool
·        www.weeklybitz.net
                                    Appendix
                                       Interview schedule
IMPACT OF HARTAL ON DAYLABOUR: A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS ON DHAKA CITY
1. Demographic profile:
1.1.Name:
1.2.Age:
1.3.Sex:
1.4.Religion:
a)      Muslim
b)      Hindu
c)      Buddhist
d)      christen
1.5.Marital status:
a)      married
b)      unmarrid
c)      divorce
d)      widow
1.6.Education:
a)      Illiterate
b)      Literate
c)      Primary
d)      Secondary
e)      Higher secondary
1.7.Family type:
a)      Nuclear
b)      Joint
c)      Others
1.8.Total no. of family:
1.10. Total Income of family:
                                                                                                                               Page no: 1
                                                                                                                                          I.S-                                                                                                                                       
2. Socio-economic condition of the respondent?                                                          
2.1. Where is your family living now?
      a) Village home
b) Town
c) Others
1.9.Where are you living at Dhaka now?
a) Slum
b) Relative house
c) Rent house
d) Others
1.10.        What do you do?                                                                                                   
a)      Rickshaw pullers
b)      poor footpath vendors
c)      daily wage earners
d)      small shopkeepers
e)      others
1.11.        What is your income?
       a) 100-300 taka
       b) 300-600 taka
       c) 600-800 taka
       d) 800-1000 taka
       e) Others
1.12.        Do you properly maintain your family with this income?
a) Yes
b) No
1.13.        If no, why?
          …………………..
                                                                                                                               Page no: 2
                                                                                                                                     I.S-
3. Nature of occupation:
3.1. Do you satisfy your occupation?                       
       a)Yes
       b) No
3.2. a)If no, why you don’t satisfied your occupation?
3.3. Do you do anything beside your occupation?
a)      Yes
b)      No
3.4. If yes, what do you do?
           ……………………
4. The impact of Hartal on respondent’s occupation:                                               
4.1. Are you interested in politics?
a)      Yes
b)      No
4.2. Do you take part in any activities of the political parties?
a)      Yes
b)      No
4.3. What kind of activities do you participate?
4.4. Do you prefer Hartal?
a)      Yes
b)      No
c)      More or less
                                                                                                                               Page no: 3
                                                                                                                                          I.S-                                                                                                                        4.5. Do you think Hartal affects your income?
a)      Yes
b)      No
4.6. If yes, what type of effect?
4.7. What is the impact of Hartal on your occupation?
5. The impact of societies development:
5.1. Do you think Hartal affects our economy?
a)      Yes
b)      No
5.2. If yes, how?
a)      decreased economic income
b)      most of the private industries are closed
c)      people cannot go their works
d)      others
5.3. Do you think Hartal affects our market price?                                                         
a)      Yes
b)      No
5.4. If yes, how?
5.5. Do you think hartal is the obstacle of our development?
a)      Yes
b)      No
5.6. If yes, why do you think?
                                                                                              Thanks for your valuable times
 Md. Ashadul Islam
    Master’s
1st Semester,
 2nd Batch

JNU

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